of African Traditional Religion in the primary schools in Zimbabwe. author uses three data collection techniques. teaching of African Traditional Religion. In general, people communicate with Mwari through the vadzimu (Shona), or amadhlozi (Ndebele). Best, J. W. and J. V. Kahn. In the case of Zimbabwe, a, policy is in place to the effect that African Traditional Religion should, be taught in Religious and Moral Education classes and the grades, 1–2 Religious And Moral Education syllabus has been revised. In Shona and Ndebele religion, God, or the Supreme Being, is seen as the creator and sustainer of the universe in much the same manner as within Christianity. As part of the project, teachers of these homes were equipped with animated videos of short stories and practical examples, interactive applications and quizzes to teach concepts through an after school tutoring program. the latter was still in use before and after Zimbabwe’s independence. Every year towards the beginning of the rainy season, Chief Hobodo, as the custodian of Kalanga religion and customs, sends a delegation of amawosana (people with rain-making spirits) to the Njelele Shrine to go and ask for some rains from Mwali (a spirit speaking from a rock in Njelele) on behalf of the community. Additionally, Christian doctrines denounced some of the traditional beliefs and practices and by so doing, destroyed even the good that prevailed in South Africa (Frankema 2012; ... Alongside resources is there is need to train school teachers including high school teachers to of courses or sections on African Religions. Oral literature encompasses fables, folktales, legends myths and proverbs. They believed that AIDS results from ‘pollution’ caused by sexual intercourse with ‘unclean’ women, while a few attributed it to having unprotected sex with an infected partner. In a study carried out by. sample cannot be said to have produced unbiased results. This is a misconception that fares no better, than the perceptions of early missionaries, traders, and travellers who, described it as ancestor worship, superstition, fetishism, animism, and, Other respondents pointed out that African Traditional Religion, is sidelined because teachers do not have knowledge of the religion, and as such tend to avoid it even when the syllabus gives them the, green light to teach it. Many researchers, such as ter Haar et al. BOURDILLON Department of Sociology, University of Zimbabwe IN 1978 I HAD a dispute with Maurice Bloch in the pages of. The article examines the difference between the practice of morality and the science of ethics as well as ethical theories and traditions. the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe and was a visiting lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University in 2006. 2.5.3.1 Traditional Leadership in West Africa (Ghana) _____ 21 2.5.3.2 Traditional Leadership Southern Africa (Zimbabwe) _____ 21 2.5.4 Traditional Leadership in selected Southern African Developed Countries _____ 22 After making a few corrections on the, questionnaire, the researchers then administered them to 176 re-, spondents, which comprised both Bachelor of Education (In-Service), Primary and Early Childhood Development groups. Related, to that, 73.1% of the respondents were of the view that African Tra-, ditional Religion is not only taught as a necessary component of Reli-, gious and Moral Education, but also as a requisite background for the, understanding of other religions. Unpacking Banana’s “re-writing” call for a socially and contextually relevant Biblical Studies, Religious leaders as regime enablers: the need for decolonial family and religious studies in postcolonial Zimbabwe, Decolonising religious education in sub-Saharan Africa through the prism of anticolonialism: a conceptual proposition, Toward the Implementation of a Multifaith Approach in Religious Education: A Phenomenological Guide, The African Religious Landscape: An examination of Shona traditional beliefs and practices in light of HIV and AIDS, and its ramifications for mitigation and care, Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. He is a renowned author with several Shona plays and academic books to his credit. ZIMBABWE ANNIEGRACE MAPANGISANA HLATYWAYO 207520221 Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics), in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. London: Heinmann Educational Books Ltd. Ministry of Education, Zimbabwe. Christianity, “only allows for a European type of thinking, acting and reflecting, which basically ignores the cultural and religious traditions of the, peoples of Africa” (ter Haar et al. especially at the Junior level (grades 3–7). Witness to the world. Research in education. I strongly encourage you to utilise the religious beliefs and practices of your own community. Beyond rhetoric of the impact of colonialism, the paper laments the perversity of a ‘colonial caged mentality’ affecting the conceptualisation of RE in what is supposed to be a postcolonial milieu in which Africans should design school curricula that suit their particular needs. Religions of the world view disability differently. This means that the way they teach it is unlikely, to excite or motivate their pupils. examples used come from the Shona indigenous religions of Zimbabwe. Policymakers need to have a positive attitude toward African Tra-, ditional Religion so that the subject is given due attention at both, curriculum planning and implementation levels. of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. and the end is tragic.” If this is achieved at the primary school level, then it is hoped that Zimbabwe would, in the future, have people who, respect others whose beliefs differ from their own, thus exercising a, high degree of tolerance. There is apparent lack of objective measures ofrightness and wrongness of actions, especially in the present dispensation, irrespective of the so much toutedreligiosity of Nigerians. El artículo pretende dar respuestas a estas y otras preguntas relativas a la presencia de la Antropología en etapas educativas preuniversitarias Despite the fact that anthopology is an essential discipline in the formation of students in pre-universitary education levels, these, when they get their high school diploma, have hardly ever heard about it, about its contents, its authors or its look when facing the interpretation of social events. Since then, religion in schools has been a complex and contested subject. One of the aims of this policy was for public schools to promote, protect, respect and instil the core values of a democratic society through their processes and practices. For many Africans and Ghanaians, in particular, it is religion more than anything else that shapes their worldview and participation in social life6. (1992), Chitando (1998), and Mbiti (1969), have contributed immensely in literature that per-. Department of Science and Maths Education, Faculty of Education, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. (stories). 1987. As such, I posit that principles of phenomenology of religion are a potential guiding framework for teachers to effectively engage multifaith syllabi. The authority of the most proximate ancestors is present. constantly being involved in the lesson through discussion, listening, larly Aim 3, which seeks to help pupils to: “Know about other religions, they are likely to encounter in Zimbabwe so that they understand, their differences and appreciate their similarities,” and Aim 4 whose, resolve is to help pupils to: “respect people whose beliefs differ from, theirs, hence developing a spirit of tolerance and cooperation among, The themes to be taught cover a wide range of pupils’ experiences. A particular action is regarded (by implication and praxis) as right when performed bypersons of a particular religion, tribe and party affiliation, but as an abomination when performed by some otherpersons. Thus, the teacher must, be a specialist in charge and he or she must be aware of change as an, In general, African Traditional Religion lacks recognized written, textual traditions and this makes it difficult to persist in its teaching, and analysis. Abstract: Chrispen Matsika, University of Massachusetts Amherst. Pollard, A. and S. Tann. African Traditional Religion regards disability as a curse from the produces new dimensions of African traditional religion. Religious and Moral Education is not examined on its own at, grade 7 but as part of content that also includes Social Studies, En-, vironmental Studies, and other general topics. It is demonstrated that what Banana intended was eradicating injustice, violence and inequality in the Middle East which was fuelled by the “ideology of chosenness”, which was sustained by a use of the Bible. This makes the use of the multi-faith approach irrelevant to this, It is in view of the foregoing that this study sought to establish, the degree to which African Traditional Religion is being taught in, Zimbabwe’s primary schools. Recommendations for effective teaching were made. Once it became clear the end was not re-writing the Bible, this work moved on to consider alternative means to achieving the same end. 1992, 3). The Relationship between God and People in Shona Traditional Religion . Susana learning will make students unsaturated to receive material from teachers. An attempt is made to … Furthermore, Mbiti (1975, 179) points out that “morals are the food, and drink which keep society alive, healthy and happy. SUPERVISORS Professor Sarojini Nadar Professor Hassan O. Kaya This book argues that re-writing was proposed as a means to an end by Banana. This study sought to establish the extent to which African, Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges, faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. Islam is the religion of less than one percent of the population of Zimbabwe. In another chapter, puberty rites were mentioned as another rites of passage. 3.1 African Traditional Religion as a New Religion 4. Chitando comes from a phenomenological vantage point. The Muslim community consists primarily of South Asian immigrants (Indian and Pakistani), a small number of indigenous Zimbabweans, and a very small number of North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. RelZim.org articles about traditional religions in Zimbabwe. 3 And similar to this was the dialogue that took place between Edwin Smith, who had gone out as a missionary to Africa, and Emil Ludwig, an eminent biographer. 1, Hutchison, 1913, p.xll. Traditional Religion at the primary school level. Takawira Kazembe . It is a resource book for Religious, Education containing an African traditional religious component to be, used within a multi-faith Religious Education curriculum particularly, in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Religions and moral education infants syllabus. ZIMBABWE ANNIEGRACE MAPANGISANA HLATYWAYO 207520221 Submitted in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics), in the College of Humanities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. (1992, 4), the researchers agree that, African religion occupies a cardinal position because it does not only, assist in the revival and consolidation of African cultural practices and, beliefs and the re-establishment of self-identity, but also promotes. Finally, the author proposes a “critical biblification” as a viable alternative to re-writing or de-biblification. in the post-independent Zimbabwe, like during the colonial times, Christianity is still being associated with civilization whereas African, Traditional Religion is associated with backwardness. Version of record first published: 21 Feb 2009. London: Heinmann Educational Books Ltd. Like ter Haar et al. Thus this, study sought to establish the extent or degree to which African Tra-, ditional Religion is taught in the primary schools of Zimbabwe. Hexman, I. Haralambos, M., Heald, R., and Holborn, M. 2004. , edited by K. Klostermaier and L. Hurtado Atlanta: . Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. Finally, in Zimbabwe, the Bible remains relevant in academic circles because of the persistence of religious and moral education in primary schools, Bible Knowledge in secondary schools as well as Divinity in Advanced Level classes, African religions and philosophy. The project is based on creating interest among children of classes 1 -- 7 using technology in a blended learning model and improving learning outcome in these children. 1975. Mbiti, J. S. 1969. It provides a brief background to, Through the innovative method of Islamic education learning, the learning atmosphere in the classroom is not stuck in a rigid and monotonous atmosphere. A descriptive survey design was used. The study relies on document analysis, in particular the 1999 Presidential Commission of Inquiry into Education and Training report, the Curriculum Framework for Primary and Secondary Education (2015–2022), and literature on multifaith religious education and phenomenology of religion. Joel Marashe , Gamuchirai Tsitsiozashe Ndamba & Excellent, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344080802615325, To help the child see that Jesus was (specially) sent by God to show. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Downloaded by [University of Pretoria], [Joel MARASHE] at 07:13 29 March 2013, THE TEACHING OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION, IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ZIMBABWE: CHALLENGES. Religion and have supportive Teachers’ Resource books. In this study, the design, was used in order to determine attitudes, challenges, and opportunities, in the teaching of African Traditional Religion in Zimbabwe’s primary, schools. 1975. This study sought to establish the extent to which African Traditional Religion is taught in primary schools, the challenges faced by teachers, and opportunities for promoting its teaching. He is a renowned author with several Shona plays and academic books to his credit. The available textbooks on Religious and Moral Educa-, they are biased toward Christianity. Most participants defined HIV/AIDS as a blend of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that take time to treat. questionnaires were also easy to administer and collect. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. The result of the conference was the designing of a revised, national Religious and Moral Education syllabus especially for the, Infants (grades 1–2) section. This study focuses on technology, design of project, its implementation and the results so far. One tool of Islamic education in elementary school is the method of Islamic religious education, which by using the right method then the teachings of religion can be absorbed by students with the best. The child is. The book finds that the centrality of health and well-being is not only confined to traditional religion but reflects its adaptive potential in new religious systems manifest in the phenomenon of Independent Churches. We shall try to illustrate that African culture and values can be appraised from More specifically, the argument informing the article is that it is not only possible, but also necessary, in terms of the principals’ mandate to mediate policy implementation in schools. Furthermore, to boost the, teaching of African Traditional Religion, teachers should incorporate. Some respondents, however, indicated, that the multi-faith approach entails the teaching of religions other, than African Traditional Religion, as it has no textbooks and written, Such positive attitudes provide opportunities for the teaching of, African Traditional Religion topics in Religious and Moral Educa-, tion lessons. 1992, 43), thus there is need to, decolonize the African religious mindset so that it can appreciate the. traditional Africa was the oral literature. The researcher guided respondents, on what choices to make. In fact, a sizeable number (50.9%) indicated that, African Traditional Religion is in agreement with Christianity in many, respects. upper-primary school children at an NGO, which gives shelter to street children and provides them education through government schools and in-house teachers. 3 (2007). However, 5 of, the 176 questionnaires were incomplete and they were not considered, Quantitative data collected through the questionnaire were pre-, sented in a frequency table (see Table 1). The study used non-scheduled structured interviews and a questionnaire, with both closed and open-ended questions, to gather data from the participants. To harmonize this disadvantage, the questionnaire had, a section that had open-ended questions they were supposed to fill, in. Most n’angas say they are possessed by a healing spirit which they invoke while treating the patient. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 6 LEARNING AFRICAN RELIGIOUS HERITAGE: RESPONSES FROM STUDENTS 1. Ibid. After examining the characteristics of the method, a critical approach is adopted regarding the value of phenomenology with special reference to the study of Ahican traditional religions. 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. It has aims, some, of which clearly show respect for other religions, for instance, Aims 2. and 3, which, respectively, aim to help pupils to: understand their own religion and traditions and by searching and discovery, develop their own belief system and know about the other religions they are, likely to encounter in Zimbabwe so that they understand their differences, The latter does not have aims, but terminal objectives, all of which are. the Midlands State University in Zimbabwe and was a visiting lecturer at Great Zimbabwe University in 2006. The colonisation of Africa brought many changes to African traditional models of justice to the extent that resolving conflicts using indigenous systems has become a problem that needs to be researched about (Ndiaye, 2012). There are many reasons why I ascribe to my traditional African religion or customs; the most obvious reason being the association of Christianity with colonisation and the impact it has had on African mentality. This paper presents a case study on a project aimed at enhancing the Math and Science skills of primary and, This article presents an initial exploration of the teaching of ethics by religion teachers in second level schools in Ireland. Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approach, Reflective teaching in the primary school: A handbook for the, African traditional religions in religious education: A resource, Our mission to teach: A pastoral statement on. traditional religion in order to promote Christian faith among Adventists in Zimbabwe. This is necessary in order to avoid the unfortunate impression that it is the prerogative of Western scholars. Reflective teaching in the primary school: A handbook for the classroom. (Tasie, 1980). a method of gathering original data by assessing opinions, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in order to describe existing conditions to, determine the relations between variables. This accounts for the varying figures that are sometimes seen in . Although a substantial portion of the Zimbabwean population today belongs to a Christian congregation or church, people retain many of the traditional customs and beliefs in traditional religion such as Shona or Ndebele religions. The difference, in emphasis between the Infants and Junior syllabi is that the former, was revised in 1981 in consultation with other stakeholders, whereas. This will enable you to realise the impact of indigenous religions on HIV&AIDS. It shapes the character, and culture of the people. Herbal remedies are used. As such, grade 7 examinations in Content should include items on African Tra-, ditional Religion so that it could be taken seriously at the teaching, stage. The introduction of a multi-faith approach to Religious Education in, Zimbabwe’s schools and the highlighting of different cultures, includ-, ing African traditional cultures, is an indication of the government’s, support of the multi-religious character of the Zimbabwean society, (ter Haar et al. When Ludwig got to I strongly encourage you to utilise the religious beliefs and practices of your own community. In this book, the author engages with Banana’s written works and makes critical observations regarding the call to re-write the Bible. In the, same vein the grade 5s are encouraged to develop the habit of wor-, ship by learning about the forms of worship in a variety of Christian, analysis of these examples shows that the syllabus fosters in pupils the, development of Christian values and they elbow out the learning of, other religious values other than the Christian ones. African Traditional Religion influences every area of an African life. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any, representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to, date. For those who believe that clear thinking, accurate and scientific explanation and research are important steps in the pursuit of The attitude of these two indigenous African missionaries obviously differ from their earlier To obtain valid and accurate data, the. The conclusions drawn from the study are that the attitudes of, teachers were positive toward the incorporation of African Traditional, Religion in the teaching of Religious and Moral Education. African religions and the nature of religious studies. At the time of writing, Father Bonaventure Turyomumazima of Uganda was preparing a doctoral dissertation on the relationship between traditional African healing practices, western medicine and religious belief. 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. Religions and moral education syllabus. I use critical emancipation research as lens to interrogate religious leaders as regime enablers. The Relationship between God and People in Shona Traditional Religion . The ownership of land by our ancestors is the main link between politics, religion and spirituality in Zimbabwe. The teaching of culture and heritage studies is the flagship of Great Zimbabwe University. African religions and the nature of religious studies. Is African Traditional Religion Given Due Attention? Abstract. Future studies should attempt to employ a probability sample, to establish the nature of perceptions of the teaching of African Tra-, ditional Religion in the primary school, as the use of a non-probability. Furthermore, the, system of examination in Religious and Moral Education is also a let, down. ive approach that would ensure that every religion is catered for. The adoption of this, approach is beneficial as it is also concerned that each lesson be related, to the child’s experience and the whole outcome in relevant to his or, her needs. The major, challenges are that the syllabus and the resource books do not pro-, mote the teaching of African Traditional Religion because they are, still functionally christocentric, and this impacts negatively on the in-, corporation of African Traditional Religion in Religious And Moral, Education. It outlines the central concerns of the method and illustrates how the Western context has shaped the development of phenomenology. ANTHROPOLOGY PROFESSOR AND THE ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE SECONDARY EDUCATION A pesar de que la Antropología es una disciplina esencial en la formación de los alumnos de etapas preuniversitarias, estos, a la conclusión de sus estudios de Bachillerato, apenas han oído hablar de ella, de sus contenidos, de sus autores o de su mirada a la hora de afrontar la interpretación de los acontecimientos sociales. Please send comments, corrections, additions to, Every year towards the beginning of the rainy season, Chief Hobodo, as the custodian of, Pentecostal and African Initiated Churches, articles about traditional religions in Zimbabwe, Special Coverage of the Anglican Crisis in Zimbabwe, Anglican Church of the Province of Zimbabwe, Jehovah’s Witnesses Provincial Convention. Burgeoning revolution in education technology has become a major factor in improving student understanding and retention of concepts. An attempt is made to … Zimbabwe's Education Ministry recommended the teaching of African Traditional Religion in recognition of its multi-religious society. It critiques the missionary/European epistemological hegemony that continues to render RE a colonial rather than a postcolonial project. Moreover, the centrality of the place of values in African culture as a heritage that is passed down from one generation to another, will be highlighted. Some scholars claim that African Independent Churches are syncretistic in that they combine indigenous African religion with Christian beliefs, but the degree to which this occurs is varying. The first is that the context of this article is sub-Sahara Africa. Seven years later, that party and the Zimbabwe Africa People's Union merged. As such teachers see, no point in teaching African Traditional Religion just for the sake, of teaching, as the education system is fast becoming examination, Some respondents indicated that African Traditional Religion is, associated with demons. African spirituality, sometimes referred to as African Traditional Religion used to pervade all aspects of life. The syllabus stresses the importance of, moral principles and religious beliefs in a socialist and egalitarian soci-, Junior (grades 3–7) section is yet to be revised as it is still functionally, The Infants (grades 1–2) section of the syllabus gives a green light, to the teaching of African Traditional Religion using the child-book-, child approach. The role of the school principal has been to mediate implementation of this policy. It is hard to destroy its beliefs. KEY WORDS: pregnancy, birth rites, naming rites, puberty rites, ritual In addition there is a sizable number of adherents in African-influenced religions in Bias Volume 18 is a book that is dedicated to critically unpack the meaning of the call to re-write the Bible made by the first President of Zimbabwe, Canaan S. Banana in 1991. The study also explored opportunities for improving the teaching. African religions and the nature of religious studies. African Traditional Religions were brought into the Religious, Education syllabus, and this led to an increased awareness of the val-, ues of African Traditional Religions and to the recognition that they, constitute a factor in the lives of students.” Unfortunately, the revi-, sion process ended before the Junior (grades 3–7) syllabus had been, done. Both are called ancestral spirits. The study re-. ter Haar et al. The, most notable ones are that the syllabus is functionally christocentric. Mbiti, a scholar of good repute. consolidate a genuine Zimbabwean identity. African culture has experienced rapid change since the colonial invasion. You do not find such topics as, kupira (ancestor veneration), bira (traditional beer ceremony) and so, on.” Another respondent corroborated by stating, “The books teach, biblical stories, and not much on African Traditional Religion.”, Attitudes of Teachers Toward the Teaching, Generally, the picture shown by the study is that teachers had, a positive attitude toward the teaching of African Traditional Reli-, gion. Mwali Religion real research studies provides students with practical examples of African Religion alongside professed... Findings show that previous experience and insufficient training play an important role in influencing principals. Our material world is functionally christocentric and Manion ( 1989 ) and Newman ( 2000 ), there! 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Join ResearchGate to find the people Education: its significance to current educational with... Conveniently selected sample of 171 Bachelor of Education, Zimbabwe help your work HERITAGE studies the., Religion pervades all aspects of life critical biblification ” as a means to an end by Banana for,! Results so far above types of activities are goals intended to cause harm choices to make delivered. General, people communicate with Mwari through the miracles and actions of Jesus are em- strongly you! As ethical theories and traditions this New framework, spoken words alone would no be. Under this New framework, spoken words alone would no longer be considered witchcraft... Article concludes by showing the ambiguous nature of the school principal has been a and... And values is not only apt and timely, but also appropriate as it allowed the researchers to the... Of, the, system of examination in Religious, and drug doses should be done, in this,... 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