Bering Land Bridge. West Africa before the Slave Trade At the dawn of the era of transatlantic slavery, Africa was a vast and diverse land, the home of many ancient cultures and more than 800 languages. Tribes speaking Indo-European languages are migrating into the continent from the east, One of the earliest civilizations in world history has emerged in ancient India, the Indus Valley civilization, Agriculture is spreading out from its core areas in ancient China, and one of the greatest civilizations in world history is emerging, A new phase in technology is beginning in Australia, and the migration of the ancestors of the Polynesians has begun from south China, Large villages are developing along the Pacific coast, with temple-mounds and irrigation systems being constructed, Invasions have devastated the old centres of civilization, but important new developments, such as the use of iron, the appearance of the alphabet and the rise of Israel, with its monotheistic religion, have taken place, Major population movements in Europe have caused widespread upheaval, and the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations have vanished, In this dark age of ancient indian history the Aryan people are laying the foundations of future Indian civilization, Ancient Chinese civilization expands under the Zhou dynasty, which will be the longest-lasting dynasty in China's history, Large-scale popluation movements continue to affect this region, A new phase in technology is beginning in Australia, and the migration has begun from south China of the ancestors of the Polynesians, The first civilization in South America is in the making, The Olmec civilization has appeared in North America, The ancestors of the Polynesians have reached as far east as Fiji, In the Amazon basin, the Arawak diaspora is in full flood, The influence of the Olmec civilization now covers much of Central America, The conquests of Alexander the Great have reshaped the map of the Middle East, and Greek-speaking kingdoms, founded by Alexander's generals, now cover the region, The Celts still dominate much of Europe, but a new power, Rome, is on the rise and is now the leading power in the western Mediterranean, The history of ancient India has seen the great Mauryan empire cover much of the subcontinent. Shortly slaves are being shipped back to Europe in Portuguese holds, mainly for work on the sugar plantations of Portugal and Madeira. The Africa coasts have been visited by the ships of two alien powers. The North African countries became independent from France in 1956 – except Algeria, where the French settlers have insisted that Algeria becomes administratively integrated with France, and where a major uprising has thus broken out. Learn about the ancient Bantu People and their migrations. Nguni and Sotho speaking groups begin colonizing South Africa (subjecting and incorporating neighboring groups and dispossessing their land), with eventually only the western and northern areas of the Cape not dominated by them. By now, Western countries have mostly banned the slave trade. In many cases, peaceful communities have turned themselves into armed bands. This transition has given them the edge over their hunter-gatherer neighbours, and, starting from present-day Nigeria and Cameroon, they are expanding outwards. In North Africa, the great city of Carthage has been defeated in two great wars with the Romans, but remains a thriving commercial centre. In North Africa, the Islamic religion has taken root, and a Shiite movement, called the Fatimids, now rules most of that region from Egypt. Visit the Michigan Merit Exam - Social Studies: Test Prep & Practice page to learn more. – All the World’s history, at your fingertips –. In this lesson, we explore several of the more important trade networks during the Middle Ages, from the Silk Road across Central Asia to the gold trade across the Sahara. Paleo-Indians. Egypt and most of North Africa have come under the rule of the Ottoman empire. In the Nile Valley, Ancient Egypt, one of the great civilizations of the ancient world, is now flourishing. A fearful genocide in the small country of Rwanda (1994) shocked the entire world. In southern Africa, the Bantu herding cultures are thriving, pushing the pre-Bantu hunter-gatherer peoples further and further into inhospitable desert areas. The chapter starts with ancient Ethiopia in Northeast Africa (300 to 700 CE) and moves to the Western Sudanic Empires in the Sahel of West Africa (800 to 1591 CE). Africa invented trades, cultures, traditions, and so many other things that affected Africa in many ways. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. Historical overviews of the art of Africa Historical overview: to the 1500s By Dr. Christa Clarke, for The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. These are stone-using peoples; but to the north, in present-day central Nigeria, an iron-using society, known to modern scholars as the Nok culture, has appeared. AFRICAN EMPIRES to 1500 CE (1 of 4) previous | next. The Ethiopian script is derived from an Arabian one. Education existed in Africa long before the continent was colonized or even before the slave trade. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Slaving states, whose economy is based in servicing this trade, have arisen in West and Central Africa. This was because long before the slave trade that spread Christianity began in the late 15th century, Arabian conquerors came to Africa and spread Islam. I. Pre-historic Africa 1. The traders are in search of salt, ivory, gold, exotic animals for the Roman circus, and slaves. The … Nubia is under Egyptian rule at this time. A powerful new kingdom is arising in Ethiopia, while in West Africa trade routes across the Sahara are developing. By this date the western portions of North Africa have fallen away from the empire, and are being occupied by Berber nomads from beyond the old imperial frontiers, as well as by a German tribe which has crossed over from Europe, the Vandals. Here, the Indian Ocean trade between Africa, Arabia and India has resulted in the rise of coastal city-states. Some of the world’s other great civilisations, such as Kush, Axum, Mali, and Great Zimbabwe, flourished in Africa in the years before 1500. West African civilization continues to advance, and other kingdoms have appeared beside Ghana, notably Songhai and Mali. These cereals, much more difficult to domesticate than the wheat and barley which originated in western Asia, are suitable for tropical farming and will become the staple crops in the region. AFRICA 1500-1800 In the 16th century Europeans began to transport African slaves across … Around the year 1270, at Amhara, in the northern highlands of Ethiopia, a new Christian dynasty, the Solomonids, was founded by Yikunno-Amlak, a conqueror described as a king of kings – in other words an emperor.His dynasty was believed to be a continuation of the Christian kingdom that had been in Aksum centuries before. Examine how they influenced Africa with their language and culture. In this area, some powerful chiefdoms are now emerging which will, over the next few centuries, come under one ruler to form the kingdom of Egypt. In West Africa, a herding people called the Fulani, who adhere to a strict form of Islam, have spread out across a wide area and are beginning to launch Jihads against neighbouring states aimed at establishing pure Islamic states in the region. The rising Greek civilization will come under its spell, its art and architecture heavily influenced by Egyptian models. Britain and France, with their already-existing toe-holds in Africa, led the way in sending expeditions of exploration and conquest into the continent. To its south farming has also spread to Nubia, reaching the southern limits for agriculture based on wheat and barley. Overview of Africa Before 1500 - Chapter Summary. They are appalled at what they see, and their reports home arouse widespread indignation. These are under the rule of the Dutch East India Company. In this process, many old kingdoms have been destroyed, and new ones formed. Within Africa itself, the trade is mostly in the hands of African chiefs and merchants, and in return for supplying slaves, they demand metal goods, cloths, spirits and guns. In the north east, the kingdom of Egypt, after the glories of its “New Kingdom” phase, is now in decline. Michigan GED Program Overviews with School Options, Becoming a Family Law Mediator: Requirements, Job Description & Salary, Best Online Public Relations Bachelor's Degree Programs, BA in Film Studies Info on Bachelors Degree Programs, Hardware Configuration Education and Training Program Info, Master Herbalist Certification and Certificate Program Overviews, Mental Health Nursing Certification and Certificate Program Overviews, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Outline the development of the Kush and Axum civilizations on the Swahili coast, Explain the importance of Trans-Saharan trade, Discuss the rise of the Muslim states within Africa, Describe how Islamic scholarship and the Arabic language grew in West Africa, Differentiate between the religious systems in Africa, Ancient Greek & Roman Civilizations & Government, Political Revolutions & Nationalism Across the Globe (18th-20th Century), World Cultures, Advancements & Imperialism (18th-20th Centuries), Global Balances of Power & Influence (1900-1945), The Roaring Twenties, Great Depression & The New Deal, Independence, Decolonization & Democracy Around the World, The Vietnam War & American Policy in the 1970s, Conflict, Cooperation & Security Around the World, Origins of American Constitutional Government, Major Debates & Compromises for the American Constitutional Government, History & Developments of U.S. Foreign Policy, International Organizations, Treaties & Agreements. By this date, a flourishing Indian Ocean trade has been established between the east coast of Africa, India and the Middle East. Further east, the development of a more easterly trade route across the Sahara has led to the rise of the kingdom of Kanem, on the shores of Lake Chad. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. The British took the lion’s share, with the French close on their heels, but other powers came in too – Italy, Belgium (or rather, the king of the Belgians, who took the Congo as his personal estate), and the Germans. To its south, however, the civilization of Nubia continues to develop independently, becoming less “Egyptian” in its expression, and more “African”. Trade routes have spread inland, leading to the appearance of the wealthy and powerful Shona kingdom, centred on the famous urban centre of Great Zimbabwe. Knowledge, skills and attitudes were passed from generation to generation mostly through word of mouth in the African societies. Throughout the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, small groups of hunter-gatherers, mostly related to modern day San bushmen and Pygmy peoples, live in small, temporary encampments as they follow their prey and forage for nuts, berries and other nutritious plants. All of North Africa is now firmly under Roman rule. Several large trading cities, such as Timbuktu and Jenne, flourish, and to the east of the Niger, the Hausa people have founded their own powerful city states. If you need to review any of the material again, use the video tabs feature to skip ahead in any video lesson to a specific topic. Kingdoms are in the making. They are mainly interested in buying gold from local chiefs, but they soon get involved in the slave trade of the region. Populations fleeing the slavers fan out across central and southern Africa, overwhelming older societies and causing new, more militarized states to emerge. It extended its rule to the northern Ethiopian Highlands and east along the coast of the Gulf of Aden to Africa's eastern-most point at Cape Guardafui. Here, the maritime trade with Arabia and India has been expanding, and the Swahili city-states have been flourishing. In Central and East Africa, new kingdoms are forming as trade networks spread deeper into the continent. Their population is beginning to grow rapidly, and continues to push further south. This territory includes some of the most flourishing and Romanized provinces within the Roman empire. In the mid-century, the first Portuguese ships arrived off the coast of West Africa. The ancestors of the Polynesians are beginning to settle the islands of the Pacific, The peoples of the Pacific coast are making strides towards civilization, The first civilizations in world history, those of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, are emerging, Stone Age farming villages dot the landscape of Europe, In India and South Asia, the foundations are being laid for one of the great civilizations of ancient history, By this stage in history, farming is well-established in the two great river valleys of ancient China, and is spreading to neighboring lands, Stone Age farmers and hunter-gatherers inhabit South East Asia, All the Pacific islands are uninhabited, except for Australia, New Guinea and the Solomons, Permanent villages have grown up along coasts and rivers, Hunter-gatherer cultures cover most of North America, The civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia are now flourishing in the Middle East, Europe is still inhabited by Stone Age farming peoples. Then, test your understanding with a brief quiz. Subscribe to our newsletter to receive updates on new articles, lesson plans and special offers. Nubia, however, retains its independence. Egypt's Pharaoh Authority Was Discredited © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while in central Africa the Bantu expansion continues. In sub-Saharan Africa, the southward migration of the Bantu peoples has by now reached full momentum. Test Preparation Video: Tips for Preparing for the GED Exam. Long before 1500, much of present-day Nigeria was divided into states, which can be identified with the modern ethnic groups that trace their history to the origins of these states. It is perhaps worth noting at the start that the spread of Islam in Africa was much more than the passing on and adoption of religious ideas. One of the best ways of finding the populations of those areas of Africa pre-1500 is to check in old encyclopedias and printed books from earlier centuries. European explorers have visited the interior of Africa. Our instructors present lessons on Africa before 1500 in this engaging chapter. The Portuguese begin mapping and exploring the South African coastline and basic trading takes place between the Khoikhoi and the Europeans. On the rest of the continent live hunter-gatherer peoples and fishermen, mostly related to today’s Pygmies or San Bushmen. 1500–1650 Arid western half of southern Africa was dominated by Khoi herdsmenand by San hunters/gathererswho in lean times became clients of the Khoi. In sub-Saharan Africa, farming has taken root amongst the Bantu peoples of the West African rain forest region. In this lesson, you will explore the rise of Islam in Africa and discover how Muslim states grew in size and power. Agitation in Britain against the Indian Ocean slave trade follows, and a new imperial movement gathers pace, which regards Europeans as agents of a superior civilization, whose duty it is to bring Africans the benefits that their own people enjoy. Review topics related to Africa before 1500 using the informative lessons provided in this chapter. West Africa before European intervention. The origins of African art exist long before recorded history, beginning with the evolution of the human species. The Portuguese domination has led to a decline in the prosperity of all the Swahili cities. Further south, in Nubia, in modern-day Sudan, wide grasslands give rise to cattle-herding cultures. As the UNESCO General History of Africasummarises, unlike many other faiths: It is thus perhaps more comprehensible, given the above, why so many African rulers and elites were ready to adopt a foreign religion when it also brought with it definite advantages of governance and wealth. This is probably the result of efforts by some chiefs to control the southern end of the trans-Saharan trade. The speed of the Bantu movement is startling. Bantu farmers from West Africa are beginning to spread out across the continent. In the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, cattle-herding and farming are gradually spreading throughout western and central Africa, having probably reached the Great Lakes region by now. In this lesson, we learn about the three premier empires of the pre-colonial period in West Africa: Ghana, Mali, and Songhai, who all profited tremendously from the trans-Saharan gold trade. It was gold from the great empires of West Africa… The Portuguese have established the first European colonies in Africa south of the Sahara. Their settlement in modern-day Angola is the base for their slave trade. Biological and Biomedical The Zulu conquests, and the mass-migrations they have caused, have resulted in a huge upheaval over a large part of southern Africa. In the south and east, this is probably related to the penetration of trade routes further and further inland from the Indian Ocean. India has entered a new phase in its history as Muslim states establish themselves over much of the north. This has led to the rise of more kingdoms in the forest regions, near the coast. Its ancient civilization will retain its power for many centuries, however. Ancient Africa. Most of Africa is home to bands of hunter-gatherers, but in the Nile valley, the civilization of Egypt is beginning to emerge. Powerful and prosperous, its Christian culture, though isolated, is flourishing and giving rise to the great rock-cut churches of king Lalibela. In North Africa, a series of Islamic movements, the Almoravids and the Almohads have conquered large areas, at one point even stretching into West Africa. The Roman provinces of North Africa have shared in the troubles of the declining Roman empire. Meanwhile, the kingdom of Morocco has formed its own empire, straddling the Sahara desert. In North Africa, the Islamic religion has taken root, and a Shiite movement, called the Fatimids, now rules most of that region from Egypt. This agriculture is based on a quite different set of crops to savannah agriculture, with cultivated fruits and roots such as plantains and yams as the staples. Into this turbulent region have come the first Christian missionaries from Europe, David Livingstone being the most famous. the first Americans who crossed from Asia into North America sometime between 38,000 and 10,000 B.C.E. All of North Africa is now part of the Roman empire, while to the south the Bantu migration continues. To the south, in a vast area stretching from the present-day Sudan into West Africa and down into East Africa, semi-nomadic populations of cattle herders occupy the land. The Cape colony in South Africa, founded by Dutch settlers, has now passed from Dutch to British control. Citizenship, Rights & Politics in the U.S. Michigan Merit Exam - Social Studies Flashcards. Meanwhile the Nubian kingdoms in the upper Nile valley have become home to a vibrant Christian culture. Module 1 America, Africa, and Europe before 1500. In West Africa, Fulani jihads have led to the rise of large states, most notably the empire founded by Usman dan Fidio which now controls the ancient Hausa city-states and their neighbours. Recent years have also seen the end of white rule in South Africa and Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and freedom for Angola and Mozambique. Microsoft Office Specialist Exams and Test Prep Information, Why You Should Take a Practice Test Before You Start Your Test Prep, GED Practice Test Online with Example GED Practice Test Questions. Meanwhile, Axum has become a powerful Christian state, converted by monks from the Byzantine empire. European sailors and traders first arrived off the coast of West Africa in the mid-15th century. Importing horses from the north allows some chiefs to form cavalry forces, and so to dominate surrounding villages more easily. Beside rivers and lakes, settlements of fishermen are situated. By this date, large-scale immigration of Arabs into North Africa have made this region largely Arab-speaking. By this date Bantu tribes occupy a huge stretch of territory, from the west African and Congo rain forests and the grasslands to their north, right across to the Great Lakes region. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. In this lesson, we explore the multifaceted religious systems present in Africa, from the indigenous religions, which still influence many on the continent, to Islam and Christianity, which many adhere to today. STUDY. Superior warships and cannon have given the newcomers a dominating position, and they have now seized the southern cities, and exert a tight influence over the rest of the coast. Whereas Chinese ships have not returned since, the Portuguese ships, although appearing in far smaller numbers (and are themselves far smaller in size than the great Chinese vessels), have started trading in the area. In central and southern Africa, the slave trade, and later the ivory trades, and the endemic violence these have fuelled, have led to the wholesale dissolution of traditional tribal structures and ways of life. Earning Your Michigan High School Diploma! As a result of the First World War, the German territories were transferred to France (Cameroon) and Britain (in South West Africa and East Africa). Since then, Africa has been incorporated into an Atlantic trading system which is centred on the enslavement of large numbers of Africans and shipping them to the labour-hungry European colonies in the Americas. What Michigan College Is Good for Aviation Studies? The European nations are starting to withdraw from the empires in Africa. In West Africa, the powerful and wealthy kingdom of Ghana has appeared, built on the proceeds of the lucrative trans-Saharan trade in salt, gold and slaves. At this latitude, the Bantu farmers reach the limits of tropical crops, and therefore can go no further. The Christian civilization of the Nubian kingdoms in the Nile Valley continues to flourish, while the Christian kingdom of Ethiopia is under fierce pressure from surrounding pagan tribes. It stands to reason therefore that Africa would contain both the oldest and greatest amount of rock art on this planet. In South Africa, the original Dutch-speaking settlers (the Boer) have founded homelands in the Transvaal and the Orange Free State, away from the British-controlled Cape; however, the discovery of diamonds in the interior (1867) starts a rush of British settlers into the area and increases tensions between the two European communities. In northwestern Namibia, the Ovambo engaged in farming and the Herero engaged in herding. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Southern and central Africa have experienced huge dislocation. 9 This expansion seems to have followed two lines of movement, one to the west, through the Congo forests and down into the grasslands of Namibia, the other through East Africa and now approaching southern Africa. However, European nations are beginning to take a more assertive stance towards Africa. These early states included the Yoruba kingdoms, the Edo kingdom of Benin, the Hausa cities, and Nupe. By 1500 AD, most of southern Africa had established states. Humans begin to migrate from Africa to other parts of the world 8500 BC – 6500 BC In the Sahara Desert region, the people develop the use of pottery and use it for tools and dishes. Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study In the latter part of the 19th century, European interest in Africa grew. Some of the world’s other great civilisations, such as Kush, Axum, Mali, and Great Zimbabwe, flourished in Africa in the years before 1500. About 60% of the slaves are taken from the West African coast, the rest from south of the equator. How Can Parents Help Their Students Prepare for a College Readiness or AP Exam? The inevitable tensions which resulted from overlapping ambitions led to European diplomats carving Africa up into “spheres of influence”, within which each power could do almost what it liked. In the former, the apartheid system was brought to an end in a peaceful transition to multi-racial rule, largely brokered by the charismatic Nelson Mandela. The Zulu conquests are causing turmoil over a large part of south and central Africa. From about 500AD Bantu speaking people from Central and Eastern Africa had migrated into South Africa. Probably by this date, a crucial breakthrough has been made. Meanwhile, the North Africa has passed under Roman control, either as provinces of the empire, as in the case of Egypt, and the former territory of Carthage; or as client tribes, like the Mauritanians to the west. There, they barter with the Khoikhoi natives for provisions for the onward journey. By now, however, the southern regions of this empire essentially form independent kingdoms. Throughout the greater part of central and southern Africa, people remain hunter-gatherers and fishermen. Over time, the continent became increasingly diverse in culture, politics, and religion. The maritime trade between the east coast of Africa, Arabia and India is also expanding, and is leading to the rise of a coastal society, predominantly black by race and Muslim by culture, which will later be given the name “Swahili”. Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam. Africa Before 1800 CE. Work through these video lessons at your own pace, and then take the accompanying quizzes to make sure you've understood what you've learned. At around the same time, groups of Bantu make the crossing from East Africa to northern Madagascar. Though often overshadowed by its Egyptian neighbors to the north, the Kingdom of Kush stood as a regional power in Africa for over a thousand years. In South Africa, even though it has been independent from Britain since 1931, a white regime is in power. Southern Africa before the 15th century ... By 1500 most of the farming communities had stabilized in roughly their present-day habitats, reaching their ecological frontier on the dry southern Highveld of South Africa and gradually clearing the coastal forests. In the late 1400s Islam had already spread wildly in sub-Saharan Africa. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. The slave trade continues to flourish, shifting its centre of gravity further south. In West Africa, large chiefdoms are emerging on the southern fringes of the Sahara. A related group, the Ovambanderu, expanded to Ghanzi in northwestern Botswana. To its south, the centuries-old kingdom of Nubia has been shattered by a strong invasion from the Axumite kingdom of Ethiopia; it has fragmented into three smaller kingdoms. Africa before 1500 ce was a time where many events happened that changed the civilization of Africa forever. Berber tribes are pioneering long-distance trade routes across the Sahara, aided by the use of camels, introduced into this region around this time. An Egyptian civilization that became a unified state. You can test out of the first two years of college and save 6000 BC Gold was a means of exchange and used to measure value. At the beginning of the 15th century, a large Chinese fleet visited some of the Swahili ports on the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa. Since independence, African countries, with very few exceptions, have experienced political instability, ethnic and religious strife, military dictatorship, corruption, entrenched poverty, and a lethal HIV/AIDS pandemic. Axum, and its port Adulis, on the Red Sea coast, are flourishing centres of trade, and at this time seem to have controlled the maritime trade coming up the Red Sea from India and the East. In this period of East Asia's history great technological advances occur, both in China and Korea, Polynesian colonists discover New Zealand, The Chimu empire is now the leading state in the Pacific-Andean region, The Toltec empire has vanished, and the Mexica people have appeared in history, The Khmer empire is at the height of its power, and the great temple of Angkor Wat has been built, Islam has by now become the majority religion in the Middle East, Muslim merchants have established a network of small sultanates in the region, The Aztecs are now building their empire in Central America, The union of Poles and Lithuanians under one crown creates a huge dual kingdom, Developments such as the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the expansion of trade and colonization throughout the world, have transformed Europe, The Ottoman empire now dominates most of the Middle east, The Mughal empire now rules much of the sub-continent, marking a high point in the history of Indian civilization, In China, the Qing dynasty rules, and Japan and Korea have experienced one of the most destructive wars in East Asian history, Europeans are beginning to make their presence felt in this region, The first European sailors have now appeared in Oceania, North America is now being colonized by Europeans, The Spanish and Portuguese now control much of South America, The first permanent European settlement has been established in Oceania, in south-west Australia, which has been claimed for the British empire, This is the last glorious phase of East Asia's history before it feels the West's impact, and Qing dynasty China dominates the region with its tributary system, The foundations for worldwide scientific and military dominance are being laid in the struggles between European nations, The Middle East experiences political weakness in both the Ottoman empire and Iran, India has entered a new chapter in its history with the expansion of the British empire in the subcontinent, Dutch commercial and political influence now spreads far and wide throughout the islands and coasts of South East Asia, The Spanish and Portuguese empires rule most of South America between them, European missionaries and traders are active throughout the Pacific, New intrusions into East Asian history, Western merchants and missionaries, are clamouring to be let into China and the other countries of East Asia, Europe continues to be transformed by intellectual change and industrial expansion, Some Middle Eastern governments are taking steps to modernize their countries, The British empire now dominates most of India, marking the most radical change in the long history of the subcontinent, The British are acquiring more territories in the region, The USA has purchased a vast territory from the French, The countries of South America have won their independence from Spain and Portugal, The Pacific islands are falling under European control, East Asian history has taken a radically new direction as Western powers force open the doors of China and Jappan to trade and missionary activity, Nationalism and industrialization continue to transform Europe, The Ottoman empire has tightened its grip on much of the Middle East, The history of British India almost ended in a great rebellion, but the British were able to regain control, European power is growing in South East Asia, The USA almost tore itself apart in civil war, Foreign investment is pouring into some South American countries, European nations now rule much of the world, but their rivalries are now leading them into the First World War, The British and French are increasingly active in the Middle East, The history of the British empire in India reaches its height - but it will shortly come to an end, The European powers have shared out most of South East Asia amongst themselves, Brazil, Argentina and Chile are growing wealthy, Canada and the USA have experienced huge industrial expansion, Japan has successfully modernized, and has gained international status at the expense of China and Korea, All the Pacific islands have fallen under foreign control, Europe has experienced two devastating world wars, and is now divided between East and West, The Cold War has had a major impact on the Middle East, The long history of India and South Asia has entered a new chapter with the replacement of the British empire by independent republics, The countries of South East Asia have become independent from their Western masters, Eva Peron wins the hearts of Argentinians, The USA and Canada have fought in the two world wars together, China, Japan and Korea have all experienced some of the most turbulent times in their entire history, as great wars have swept through East Asia, Many Pacific islands were caught up in the fierce fighting of World War 2, Arab-Israeli hostility has dominated Middle Eastern politics, The history of India and Pakistan has been characterised by mutual hostility, South East Asia has experienced dramatic economic growth, Many countries of South America have swung, first to dictatorship, and then to democracy, The NAFTA trade agreement is benefitting the economies of all North American countries, The recent histories of all the nations of East Asia, China, Japan and Korea, have seen them become major economic powerhouses in the world, Many new independent nations now dot the Pacific Ocean. 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That affected Africa in the Nile Valley, is now part of southern Africa had migrated into south Africa the... Africa during the trans-Atlantic slave trade ancient history, beginning with the evolution of North! Themselves into armed bands modern-day Sudan, wide grasslands give rise to cattle-herding cultures continues develop. Is better suited to the great rock-cut churches of king Lalibela have withdrawn from their empires in south.
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